Experimental and finite element approach for finding sound absorption coefficient of bio-based foam

L. Yuvaraj1 , S. Jeyanthi2 , Lenin Babu Mailan Chinnapandi3

1, 2, 3Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai, India

2Corresponding author

Journal of Vibroengineering, Vol. 21, Issue 6, 2019, p. 1761-1771. https://doi.org/10.21595/jve.2019.20335
Received 25 October 2018; received in revised form 18 June 2019; accepted 30 June 2019; published 30 September 2019

Copyright © 2019 L. Yuvaraj, et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons License
Abstract.

The enormous consumption of Polyurethane foam leads to severe environmental pollution and health hazards, so it is necessary to overcome this problem. This paper presents alternative and less hazardous foam that differs from traditional foams. A bio-based foam was developed either by using castor oil-based polyol or natural fibers as fillers. In the present study, rigid foam is synthesized by both castor polyol and luffa fiber, whereas for flexible foam, only luffa fiber is incorporated. Luffa fillers enhance the porosity of Polyurethane foam, which is the dominating factor influencing the value of the sound absorption coefficient. Both rigid and flexible foams were developed with 5, 10 and 15 percentages of filler loaded. The samples are tested experimentally using the two-microphone impedance tube method and the measured result was compared with the numerical result, which is predicted from COMSOL Multiphysics. The experimental results of flexible foam demonstrate good agreement with numerical results. The results indicate that the addition of Luffa fibers enhances the sound absorption performance of flexible foam and deterioration in the rigid foam because of the high viscosity of castor oil polyol.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights
  • Bio-based polyurethane foam developed with castor polyol and Luffa fiber for acoustic application.
  • Incorporation of fibers enhances the sound absorption capability of Pu foam.
  • Morphological study evident the presence of Luffa fiber in foam sample.
  • Powder form of fiber can be used as filler rather than short fiber would be better for rigid foam.
  • Flow resistivity of open cell foam increases with addition more fibers.

Keywords: polyurethane foam, luffa fiber, impedance tube, COMSOL Multiphysics, sound absorption coefficient.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST-SERB; File No. ECR/2015/000111) for providing us the necessary facilities and funds for conducting this study.

References

  1. Park Ju, Yang Hyun, Lee Hyeong Rae, Yu Cheng Bin Optimization of low frequency sound absorption by cell size control and multi-scale poroacoustics modeling. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2017. [Publisher]
  2. Gwon Jae Gyoung, Kim Seok Kyeong, Kim Jung Hyeun Sound absorption behaviour of flexible polyurethane foams with distinct cellular structures. Materials and Design, Vol. 89, Issue 5, 2016, p. 448-454. [Publisher]
  3. Pinto Moises L. Formulation, preparation, and characterization of polyurethane foams. Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 87, Issue 2, 2010, p. 1749-16. [Publisher]
  4. Ekici Bulent, Kentli Aykut, Kucuk Haluk Improving sound absorption property of polyurethane foams by adding tea-leaffibers. Archives of Acoustics, Vol. 37, Issue 4, 2012. [Publisher]
  5. Ibrahim M. A., Melik R. W. Optimized sound absorption of rigid polyurethane foam. Archives of Acoustics, Vol. 28, Issue 4, 2003, p. 305-312. [CrossRef]
  6. Mohanta N., Achary S. K. Fiber surface treatment: its effect on structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of Luffa cylindrica fiber and its composite. Journal of Composite Materials, 2015. [CrossRef]
  7. Suqin Tan, et al. Rigid polyurethane foams from a soybean oil-based polyol. Polymer, Vol. 52, 2011, p. 2840-2846. [Publisher]
  8. Maria Kuranska, et al. Porous polyurethane composites with natural fibres. Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 72, 2012, p. 299-304. [Publisher]
  9. Nar M., Webber III C., D’Souza N. A. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams. Polymer Engineering Science, Vol. 55, 2015, p. 132-144. [Publisher]
  10. Ekici B., Kentli A., Kucuk H. Improving sound absorption property of polyurethane foams by adding tealeaf fibers. Archives of Acoustic, Vol. 37, Issue 4, 2012, p. 515-520. [Publisher]
  11. Glé P., Gourdon E., Arnaud L. Acoustical properties of materials made of vegetable particles with several scales of porosity. Applied Acoustic, Vol. 72, 2011, p. 249-259. [Publisher]
  12. Fatima S., Mohanty A. R. Acoustical and fire-retardant properties of jute composite materials. Applied Acoustic, Vol. 72, 2011, p. 108-114. [Publisher]
  13. Li Y., Ren H. F., Ragauskas A. J. Rigid polyurethane foam reinforced with cellulose whiskers: Synthesis and characterization. Nano-Micro Letter, Vol. 2, Issue 2, 2010, p. 89-94. [Publisher]
  14. Binici H., Eken M., Dolaz M., Aksogan O., Kara M. Environmentally friendly thermal insulation material from sunflower stalk, textile waste and stubble fibres. Construction of Building Materials, Vol. 51, 2014, p. 24-33. [Publisher]
  15. Shan C. W., Idris M. I., Ghazali M. I. Study of flexible polyurethane foams reinforced with coir fibres and tyre particles. International Journal of Applied Physics and Maths, Vol. 2, Issue 2, 2012, p. 123-130. [Publisher]
  16. Curtu I., Stanciu M. D., Cosereanu C., Vasile O. Assessment of acoustic properties of biodegradable composite materials with textile inserts. Materiale Plastice, Vol. 49, 2012, p. 68-72. [CrossRef]
  17. Binici H., Gemci R., Kucukonder A., Solak H. H. Investigating sound insulation, thermal conductivity and radioactivity of chipboards produced with cotton waste, fly ash and barite. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 30, 2012, p. 826-832. [Publisher]
  18. Paiva A., Pereira S., Sá A., Cruz D., Varum H., Pinto J. Contribution to thermal insulation performance characterization of corn cob particleboards. Energy Buildings, Vol. 45, 2012, p. 274-279. [Publisher]
  19. Tiuca Ancuţa-Elena, Vermeşana Horaţiu Improved sound absorption properties of polyurethane foam mixed with textile waste. Energy Procedia, Vol. 85, 2016, p. 559-565. [Publisher]
  20. Silva André Leandroda, Silva Lucas Renan Rochada, Camargo Isabellede Andrade Cardanol-based thermoset plastic reinforced by sponge gourd fibers (Luffacylindrica). Polímeros, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 2016. [Publisher]
  21. Yuvaraj L., Jeyanthi S. Numerical and Experimental characterization of acoustic porous material: review. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 8, Issue 8, 2017, p. 919-930. [CrossRef]